U.S. Tax Tips

Mar 19, 2021

Forms, Forms and More Forms

In this U.S. Tax Tip we are going to look at expanded Form 8858. Form 8858 has grown, over the years, into a comprehensive and complex filing. This U.S. Tax Tip is not meant to be a comprehensive review of Form 8858 nor an in-depth analysis of relevant U.S tax law. A treatise could be written with respect to each. Rather, in light of the expanded January 1, 2018 filing requirement and the lack of specific IRS guidance we wish to highlight some issues that our readers may not be aware of. Unfortunately, as is typical, neither Congress, the United States Treasury nor the Internal Revenue Service consider the impact of these rules (and the associated compliance costs) on U.S. persons who live abroad. A lot of information is required to accurately complete the form and significant penalties may apply for non-compliance.

Mar 18, 2021

IRS Extends Personal Filing Deadline

On March 17, 2021, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) issued IR-2021-59 whereby the U.S. Treasury Department and the Internal Revenue Service announced that they have automatically extended the individual federal income tax filing deadline to May 17th, 2021 from the original due date of April 15, 2021.

Feb 05, 2021

What a Start for 2021!

Welcome to the New Year and our first Cadesky U.S. Tax Tip for 2021.  Everyone here at Cadesky U.S. Tax hopes that you, and your loved ones, managed to keep safe (as much as possible!). It has certainly been an interesting start for 2021!

On January 5, 2021 the State of Georgia held runoff elections for their two Senate seats.  Republican David Purdue and Democrat Raphael Warnock, led the respective popular vote held on November 5, 2020.

Aug 21, 2020

GILTI (Global Intangible Low Taxed Income)

There are a couple of developments on the GILTI front that readers may find interesting.  First, last month the IRS issued final and proposed regulations involving GILTI and the high-tax exclusion.  Second, one of Democratic U.S. Presidential nominee Joe Biden’s tax proposals is the doubling of the effective GILTI corporate tax rate from 10.5% to 21%.

To understand the potential impact of these, you first need to have a general understanding of what the GILTI provisions are meant to do and their current impact.

Jun 23, 2020

Revocable Living Trusts

It is a fairly common estate planning technique in the United States to utilize a revocable living trust (“RLT”) as part of a “United States person’s” estate planning. For U.S. estate tax purposes, a United States person would include a U.S. citizen and a U.S. domiciliary. What is not so common though, is the potential foreign impact when the underlying U.S. grantor moves to a foreign jurisdiction.

Jun 08, 2020

Economic Impact Payments – An update

In prior U.S. Tax Tips we discussed the requirements for qualified U.S. taxpayers to receive the Economic Impact Payment. The Economic Impact Payment (“EIP”) is part of the CARES Act and represents a pre-payment of a 2020 tax credit of US $1,200 per “eligible individual” and an addition US $500 per “eligible child.” Technically this credit will be claimed as part of their U.S. personal income tax return (if one is required to be filed). The payment is not limited to U.S. residents but includes “eligible individuals” who live outside the United States. Many of our clients have received their payments.

May 11, 2020

CARES Act – Changes to Net Operating Loss Carry Forwards

In prior U.S. Tax Tips we looked at who is… Read more »

Apr 24, 2020

Stranded in the United States? IRS provides COVID-19 guidance

As we have discussed in prior U.S. Tax Tips, the determination of residency in the United States is a question of fact.  If you are not a U.S. citizen nor a lawful permanent resident (i.e. a green card holder) you will be a U.S. tax resident under U.S. domestic law if you satisfy the substantial presence test.   Under this test, a nonresident alien will become a U.S. resident if they are physically present, and those days are not statutorily excluded, in the United States (i) over 182 days in the current year or (ii) over 182 days under the three year rolling average test. 

Apr 21, 2020

Rules Regarding Certain Hybrid Arrangement

On April 7, 2020 the United States Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service released final and proposed regulations aimed at curbing hybrid mismatch arrangements.  A hybrid mismatch occurs when a transaction is treated differently between countries and one of the main reasons of the transaction was to avoid taxes both in the foreign country and in the United States.

Apr 13, 2020

Update on IRS Filing Guidance and 2020 Recovery Rebate

In previous U.S. Tax Tips we have reported that the U.S. Congress has extended the tax payment and filing deadline for those with an April 15, 2020 due date to July 15, 2020.  Relief is automatic; affected taxpayers do not have to call the IRS or file any extension forms, or send letters or other documents to receive this relief. However, not all taxpayers (i.e., June 15th filers) were accorded this automatic extension.

Mar 30, 2020

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act What does it mean for Americans Abroad?

On March 27th, 2020 President Trump, signed into law, the largest stimulus package in U.S. history, estimated at some US $2.2 trillion. The CARES Act is the U.S. federal government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the U.S. economy. The CARES Act passed the United States Senate on March 25th, 2020, by a vote of 96-0 and passed the House by a voice vote on March 27th, 2020. It is estimated that out of those funds, in addition to individual rebates, that some $510 billion will go towards loans and grants to large companies, $377 billion towards smaller businesses, and $260 billion for expanded and extended unemployment benefits.

Mar 20, 2020

IRS moves filing due date to July 15th, 2020

In our last U.S. Tax Tip we advised that the United States Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin had announced that the United States would defer the 2019 tax payment date, April 15th, 2020, by 90 days to July 15th, 2020.  On March 18th, 2020 the IRS issued IRS Notice 2020-17 providing guidance on the deferral.  The IRS will not charge any late payment penalties nor interest on payments which were originally due on April 15th, 2020.  Consolidated groups could defer up to US $10,000,000 of tax payments while all other taxpayers, including individuals, could defer up to US $1,000,000 of tax payments.

Mar 17, 2020

Treasury Announces Extension of Payment Due Date

On March 17, 2020, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin announced that the Department of the Treasury will be deferring the April 15th deadline to pay taxes owed. Individuals and many businesses will have an additional 90 days to make their payments to the IRS. Individual taxpayers will be able to defer up to $1 million of tax liability. Corporations will receive an extension on up to $10 million of tax liability.

Mar 09, 2020

Forms 3520 and 3520-A Filing Relief – Finally!

On March 2, 2020, the IRS released an advanced version of Revenue Procedure (Rec. Proc.) 2020-17. It is expected that the final regulations will be issued on March 16, 2020 and will be effective as of the date of publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. Rev. To summarize, Proc. 2020-17 states that the U.S. Treasury and the IRS intend to issue proposed regulations that will impact the U.S. information reporting requirements with respect to the reporting of certain “foreign trusts”.

Feb 26, 2020

Investing in the U.S. via partnerships or limited liability companies (LLCs) – Part 3

In general, under IRC §865(a)(2), when a non-resident sold shares of a U.S. corporation (which are considered as personal property), the gain was sourced “outside the United States”.  As such, the U.S. did not tax the gain.  There are exceptions, however, where the underlying value is attributable to U.S. real property.   In the case of a sale of redemption of a U.S. partnership interest (whose value was not related to U.S. real property), the case was not clear.

Feb 10, 2020

Investing in the U.S. via partnerships or limited liability companies (LLCs) – Part 2

As discussed in Part 1, a partner is deemed to be doing business in the U.S. via their interest in the partnership.  Partnerships, in general, do not pay tax, the partners do.   As such, with respect to a foreign partner the U.S. Congress was (and still is) concerned that once funds leave the United States that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may be unable to enforce payment of the non-resident’s U.S. tax liability.  As such, the Internal Revenue Code imposes a withholding obligation on the partnership itself.  IRC §1446 states

Jan 27, 2020

Investing in the U.S. via partnerships or limited liability companies (LLCs) – Part 1

Here at Cadesky U.S. Tax Ltd., we receive a lot of inquiries in regards to how to structure a non-resident’s investment into the United States. Many of these investments involve U.S. real property or marketable securities. In addition, we also receive a lot of questions from Canadian advisors and new clients who have held these investments for a number of years but who have never filed any U.S. tax returns, primarily because these investments have not generated any revenue until the underlying investments are being sold.

Jan 15, 2020

The Secure Act

On December 20, 2019 President Trump signed into law The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act (aka the “Secure Act”). A number of authors have described The Secure Act as one of the most dynamic changes to retirement legislation since the Pension Protection Act of 2006. All changes are effective as of January 1, 2020. In particular there are 4 main changes (with respect to pension items)…

Dec 09, 2019

IRS Issues Guidance on U.S. Estate and Gift Tax

As part of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), P.L. 115-97, Congress almost doubled the basic exclusion amount (BEA) from US $5,600,000 to $11,180,000 as of January 1, 2018.  The BEA is indexed for inflation and will be US $11,580,000 for 2020 (see paragraph 41 of Rev. Proc. 2019-44). 

Nov 25, 2019

Understanding the Impact of GILTI

We continue to receive queries from advisors and clients who do not understand how the U.S. Global Intangible Low Taxed Income (GILTI) rules will impact them. They read generic promotional pieces from financial advisory firms and banks, on various U.S. tax issues, and become worried over what they read. The intent of this U.S. Tax Tip is to provide an example of how the GILTI provisions may impact a U.S. citizen Canadian resident who owns a Canadian corporation that is carrying on an active business in Canada. Each client situation, however, is different and an appropriate analysis of a taxpayer’s specific facts need to be considered in determining how GILTI will impact them. The example below is meant to be for illustrative purposes only

Nov 07, 2019

ITIN Renewals

The IRS estimates that almost 2 million individual taxpayer identification numbers (ITINs) will expire as of December 31, 2019.  These ITINs have the middle digits of 83, 84, 85, 86 and 87 (XXX-83-XXXX for example).    In addition, any ITIN that has not been used on a U.S. tax return for the past 3 years will also expire.

Oct 28, 2019

IRS Issues Additional Guidance on Clarifying Controlled Foreign Corporation Ownership Rules

In prior U.S. Tax Tips we have discussed the increased complexity in the United States’ Controlled Foreign Corporation (“CFC”) rules and the corresponding increase in the complexity of meeting the filing requirements.  There are significant penalties for failure to timely and accurately file Form 5471, “Information Return of U.S. Persons with Respect to Certain Foreign Corporations”.

Oct 01, 2019

Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FBAR) FinCEN Form 114

The requirement to file the U.S. Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (better known as an FBAR) is not new, and yet many U.S. persons are still unaware of the need to file this form. The requirement to file an FBAR is not pursuant to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) but instead pursuant to the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act (BSA). The BSA was originally passed by the U.S. Congress in 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon on October 26, 1970.

Sep 17, 2019

New IRS program: Relief Procedures for Certain Former Citizens

As was discussed in our last U.S. Tax Tip, the IRS had announced a number of new compliance programs emanating from their Large Business and International (LB&I) unit.  We also had previously reported that one of the IRS compliance programs, the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program terminated on September 28, 2018.  The Streamlined Compliance Filings Procedures Program (both foreign and domestic), however, is still in effect.  It would appear that as time goes on and more taxpayers have become compliant that the value of these programs to the IRS diminishes. At some point in time, the Streamlined Compliance Filings Procedures will also come to an end.

Sep 03, 2019

Expanded IRS Compliance Programs

In a prior U.S. Tax Tip, (July 2018), we had outlined 5 new, at the time, compliance programs that the IRS Large Business and International division (LB&I) introduced.   On July 19, 2019 the IRS announced 6 new compliance programs, bring the total to 59.  These new programs are S Corporations Built in Gains Tax,
Post OVDP Compliance,
High Income Non-filer,
S. Territories – Erroneous Refundable Credits,
Section 457A Deferred Compensation Attributable to Services Performed Before January 1, 2009. Two of these programs should be of interest to U.S. taxpayers who live outside of the United States.  Those two, being Post OVDP Compliance and Expatriation

Aug 19, 2019

Becoming a U.S. Tax Resident

Here at Cadesky U.S. Tax, we routinely receiving enquiries from clients who are either considering moving to the U.S. or who are spending a significant amount of time in the U.S.  They want to know on what basis they will be taxed.  One significant issue that must first be to determine their residency status for U.S. tax purposes.  It is common knowledge that a U.S. citizen is subject to U.S. taxation and filing requirements regardless of where they live in the world.  The question then becomes, for a non-U.S. citizen – when do they become a U.S. resident?

Jul 22, 2019

Revised Form 5471

The enactment of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA)) brought significant changes to the international tax world for U.S. taxpayer including, among other provisions, an expanded definition of a “United States shareholder”, the repatriation tax of IRC §965 and the global low tax intangible income (GILTI) under IRC §951A. We have discussed these provisions in earlier Tax Tips.

Jun 21, 2019

GILTI – Partial relief may be coming

We have described in past US Tax Tips the recently enacted, Global Intangible Low Taxed Income (GILTI) provisions and the potential impacts on United States persons in Canada who own enough shares in Canadian corporations such that those Canadian corporations would be a controlled foreign corporations (CFC) for U.S. tax purposes.

Mar 19, 2019

Extending a U.S. Tax Return’s Due Date

One distinct aspect of the U.S. tax system is the ability for a taxpayer to extend the due date of a tax return. This allows the taxpayer additional time to complete and file an income tax return without being assessed a late filing penalty. Late filing penalties are assessed at the rate of 5% per month up to a maximum of 25%. In most cases a tax return due date can be automatically extended by up to six months. All that is required is the filing of the proper extension form. No explanation from the taxpayer is required and the IRS cannot deny a properly filed extension. However, the timely filing of the form is crucial in order for the extension to be valid.

Feb 25, 2019

U.S. Citizens and Sale of Foreign Principal Residence

For most individuals, their principal residence is their single most important asset. In Canada, when an individual sells their principal residence the gain on the sale is exempt from capital gains tax in most instances. A taxpayer must designate the property as their principal residence when they file their Canadian personal income tax return. This is one of the biggest gifts to individuals in the Income Tax Act…

Feb 15, 2019

Housing Deductions – Impacts of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

The passing of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) introduced many changes for taxpayers. Of significant importance for U.S. taxpayers abroad were the repatriation provisions under IRC §965 and the introduction of the new Global Intangible Low Taxed Income (GILTI) regime under IRC §951A. We have discussed and will continue to discuss these provisions as necessary…

Jan 29, 2019

The Foreign Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) – It’s happening! FBARs and Form 8938 – A reminder

There has been much in the news lately about the… Read more »

Jan 17, 2019

2019 U.S. Tax Rates

On November 15, 2018 the IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2018-57. … Read more »

Jan 08, 2019

The Tax Fairness for Americans Abroad Act of 2018 [Proposed]

On December 20, 2018, just before the Congressional holiday recess,… Read more »

Dec 11, 2018

Interest Deductibility

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“TCJA” P.L…. Read more »

Dec 04, 2018

U.S. Social Security Numbers

All United States persons (citizens and green card holders) are… Read more »

Nov 20, 2018

Expiring ITINS

Individual Taxpayer Identification Numbers (ITINs) are tax processing numbers, issued… Read more »

Aug 20, 2018

The U.S. Repatriation Tax – IRC §965: Proposed Regulations Issued

On August 3, 2018 the IRS issued “final” proposed regulations… Read more »

Jul 30, 2018

FBAR Penalties – the Court Speaks (for now)

The Internal Revenue Service was handed a defeat with respect… Read more »

Jul 23, 2018

IRS Service Offerings – Available to Some, Not All

U.S. citizens abroad are burdened with the same federal tax… Read more »

Jul 11, 2018

U.S. Sales Tax – Update: The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement (SSUTA)

In light of the United States Supreme Court South Dakota… Read more »

Jul 04, 2018

New IRS Compliance Programs

On July 2nd, the IRS Large Business and International division… Read more »

Jun 25, 2018

Wayfair, you’re just what I don’t need South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc. et al Major Changes Coming for U.S. Sales Tax

As Canadian companies grow their business into the United States… Read more »

Jun 06, 2018

The U.S. Repatriation Tax – IRS issues further guidance

On June 4, 2018 the IRS issued News Release IR-2018-131. … Read more »

Apr 09, 2018

What is my U.S. taxable year (as it relates to certain Canadian corporations)?

The recently enacted U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act introduced… Read more »

Apr 03, 2018

IRS Provides Some Relief For U.S. Taxpayers Abroad in Meeting the Repatriation Tax Payment Deadlines

Yesterday, April 2, 2018, the IRS released Notice 2018-26, the… Read more »

Mar 27, 2018

Understanding U.S. Due Dates, Extensions and Payment Dates

The due date for a U.S. personal income tax return… Read more »

Mar 19, 2018

Understanding the U.S. Days Counting Test and U.S. Tax Residency

In most countries an individual’s tax residency is determined by… Read more »

Mar 15, 2018

IRS Announces the end of the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program though Streamlined is still around – for now

On March 13, 2018 the Internal Revenue Service announced (IR-2018-52)… Read more »

Mar 13, 2018

The importance of E&P – Will you be paying the right amount of tax to the IRS?

An accurate determination of “earnings and profits” (E&P) of a… Read more »

Feb 27, 2018

IRS Form 5472 : An easy but expensive filing obligation to overlook?

Recent media coverage, as it relates to U.S. tax in… Read more »

Feb 20, 2018

Understanding Constructive Share Ownership

The Tax Cut and Jobs Act (TCJA) has significant implications… Read more »

Feb 13, 2018

Changes to U.S. “Kiddie Tax” Rules

With both the increases in Canadian personal tax rates, over… Read more »

Feb 06, 2018

Do You Owe Money to the IRS? You May Lose Your US Passport

If you are a U.S. citizen and you have a… Read more »

Jan 29, 2018

Are you GILTI? New U.S. Rules Impact U.S. Individual Shareholders of Canadian Corporations

“An Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to titles II… Read more »

Jan 15, 2018

U.S. Tax Reform – Deemed Repatriation Tax and Individual Shareholders of Canadian Corporations

On December 22, 2017 President Trump signed into law, “An… Read more »

Dec 08, 2017

U.S. Corporate Tax Reduction – Impact on CCPC shareholders – Part II (GRIP)

This U.S. Tax Tip follows up on the US Tax… Read more »

Nov 30, 2017

Proposed U.S. Corporate Tax Reduction – Impact on CCPC Shareholders

Both the U.S Republican House and Senate tax plans (The… Read more »

Nov 20, 2017

Has Your ITIN Expired?

If you are a US nonresident alien and have filed… Read more »

Nov 15, 2017

U.S. Tax Reform – Is It Permanent?

Ever since President Trump announced his candidacy for President, both… Read more »

May 25, 2017

FATCA and Catch up Filing – Is the end in sight?

Since 2009, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has had… Read more »

Mar 27, 2017

Foreign Bank Account Reports – Make Sure to File Them

A United States person is required to file FinCEN Form… Read more »

Mar 17, 2016

Canadian Mutual Funds

Although this topic has been extensively covered in the Canadian… Read more »

Jan 11, 2016

Changes to FIRPTA under the PATH Act

On December 18, 2015, President Obama signed into law the… Read more »

Dec 23, 2015

U.S. Employees and IRS Form 1095-C

“Employer-Provided Health Insurance Offer and Coverage” In general, absent any… Read more »

Nov 18, 2015

NY Corporate Tax Changes

The 2014-15 New York State Budget, enacted on March 31,… Read more »